Many myths surround gamblers who were professionally playing before the 1958 publication of the basic strategy to win a one-pack by Americans Cantey McDermott Maisel and Baldwin. The legend of all they accomplished is not lost. These calculations were made by four statisticians who used only a hand calculator. The publication of the American Journal of the American Statistical Association’s article caused much excitement among statisticians and gamblers. Blackjack, however, was considered a game that a common person might likely win. Due to the popularity of the article published in the magazine, many players copied it and learned by heart, the original authors wrote “Winning Blackjack”. It is now a rare edition, and it has been added to many professional gamblers’ libraries vworld88 official.
1962 saw Edward Thorp calculate using computer technologies and publish his book Beat The Dealer. He also includes card counting. Thorp states that blackjack is different than craps, roulette, and other luck games. The result of every blackjack hand depends on the previous deal. It really doesn’t matter which cards you drew back from the game or which cards you kept in the pile. Thorp’s math is accurate to a large extent, but it is important that modern gamblers only read the book for historical purposes.
Thorp’s system, called the “10 count” system was intended for one-pack games. It has enjoyed tremendous success in all Nevada casino. It was hard to learn and most gamblers quit. However, Nevada’s casinos made some changes to their rules. They allowed double-down on 11 points and did not allow for double down on others. It was covered by the media, and Thorp’s novel became widely known. Casinos found to be at disadvantage were forced to return to the original rules. The operators of gambling houses realized that in such conditions card counters would attempt to beat the house by shuffling after withdrawing trim cards.
Thorp’s systems proved difficult to use in practice. However, the game was still on the same level for the computer conference that took place in Las Vegas in 1963. In a moment of whim, conference organizers included a Panel Session on “Using computers to play games of skill and chance.” It was an organizer’s whim to include a section titled “Using computers for games of chance or skill”. Thorp was elected Chairman of this Panel. The Panel included experts in various casino games like blackjack, roulette, and Baccarat. The room was packed and overflowing with computer gamblers. There were hundreds of conference participants pushing and shoving each other to gain entry.
Thorp, naturally, was drawn the crowd. They were looking forward to hearing his insights on the game.
Harvey Dubner, who mainly corrected and modified Thorp’s systems, was introduced. He explained his method. Dubner kept track the remaining high cards (10.J.Q.K.A.) along with the low cards (2.3,4,5,6), as the cards were played. He then divided that difference by how many cards were left to play. The result was called the High-Low Rate. The standing room-only crowd was enthusiastically responsive to his presentation. He was also applauded at the conclusion. Many felt that this was the last practical system that could be used in the real world casino game. Thorp used the “high low” system in Beat the Dealer 2, published 1966. Over 100 books on blackjack, team gaming, hidden computers, shuffle track and other casino securities have been published since then.